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# Grammar detail: mathematical notation

mathematical notation
156 words
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This article shows how to express simple arithmetic as well as more complex mathematical formulas in Japanese.
##### Arithmetic
When reading out a formula, the operators are read as follows:
 + たす - ひく x かける ÷ わる = は (read わ)
For example, 3 x 2 = 6 would be read さんかけるにはろく.
More examples:
さん
くわ
える
はち
なる
Add 5 to 3 and you have 8.
##### じょう乗 - to the power of
さん
さん
じょう
にじゅうなな
２７
である
3 to the third power is 27.
##### Odd and even numbers
even number  (see also: 奇数)
(click the word for examples and links)
odd number  (see also: 偶数)
(click the word for examples and links)
##### Sequences
noun
arithmetic progression; arithmetic sequence  (see also: 等差級数; mathematics)
(click the word for examples and links)
noun
arithmetic series  (see also: 等差数列)
(click the word for examples and links)
##### Fractions and parts

• ろくにん
6人
ちゅう
ごにん
5人
いしゃ
医者
five out of six doctors
The most common way to indicate a part of something is X
ぶん
の Y. For example:
わたし
ケーキ
よんぶん
４分
いち
べた

I ate a quarter of a cake.
##### Ratios
Ratios are expressed in the form 〜
たい
〜. For example:
その
がっぺい

いちたいいち
１対１
おこな
われた

The merger was implemented on an equal basis.
クラス
だんじょひ

だんせい

たい
じょせい

2
たい
さん
3

The ratio of males to females in the class is 2:3.
##### Averages
しち
じゅう
１０
じゅうろく
１６
へいきん

じゅういち
１１
である
The average of 7, 10, and 16 is 11.
##### Key mathematical terms
noun
decimal point; radix point
(click the word to view an additional 1 form, examples and links)
noun
denominator  (mathematics)
(click the word for examples and links)
1. numerator
2. molecule
(click the word to view an additional 1 meaning, examples and links)

Note: this article is a work in progress! If you need help with something not covered here, please let us know via the feedback link.
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### Kanji used in this grammar

ジョウ   load; power   の to board   のせる to load on
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チュウ   ジュウ   なか middle
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ジン   ニン   ひと person
イ    doctor
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シャ   もの person, someone
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ブン   ブ   フン   わける to divide, to distinguish   わかる to understand   わかれる to be divided   わかつ to share, distribute
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タイ   ツイ    vis-a-vis
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カ   くわえる to add to   くわわる to join, to be added to
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シ   わたくし    わたし I, myself
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ショク   ジキ    food   たべる to eat   く to eat
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ゴウ   ガッ   カッ   あ to fit, come together   あわす to match   あわせる to unite, join
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ヘイ   あわせる to combine, put together, unite
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コウ   ギョウ   アン   ゆ    い to go   おこな to take place
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ダン   ナン   おとこ male, man
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ジョ   ニョ   ニョウ   woman; female   おんな woman   め woman
ヒ   くらべる to compare
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セイ   ショウ    sex, gender, nature, disposition
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ヘイ   ビョウ   たい flat   ひら ordinary; flat
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キン    level; average
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