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Grammar detail: 後(あと、のち、うしろ、ご)

後(あと、のち、うしろ、ご) - after and behind
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あと, のち, うしろ and ご have much in common - they all express the concept of something being 'after' ('behind') something else, and they can all be written using the kanji 後. However, there are some distinctions.
あと and のち both refer to time. あと is by far the most common, and it is most commonly found in the construction
noun + の + あと(で)
or
verb past form + あと(で)
:
あと
でんわ
電話
します
I'll call you later.
Less commonly it is used with に or から, but they basically mean the same thing:
ぶか
部下
かれ
あと
つづ
いた

The men followed him.
わたし
あと
から
きます

I'll join you later.
のち is somewhat more formal, and tends to be found in set phrases, such as the
てんきよほう
天気予報
standard,
れのち
あめ
(fine weather followed by rain). It is also found commonly in the form のちに:
ふつか
2日
のち
もの
なくなってしまった
After two days our food gave out.
It is also very commonly found in the form のちほど:
なお
じかん
時間
のち
ほど
つた
えします

Furthermore, I'll let you know about the time later.
うしろ is used when referring to physical location - so it typically refers to a physical location of something behind something else:
その
ははおや
母親
うし
っていた

He stood behind his mother.
All three terms can be written with the same kanji, 後.
うし
ろ is usually (although not always) followed by the okurigana ろ, but unfortunately のち and あと do not use okurigana, so you need to distinguish those from context!
This can sometimes be tricky: one interesting example is the very similar set phrases うしろをつく (to follow behind) and あとをついていく (to take the same route afterwards). Since both the あと and the うしろ may be written with kanji and no okurigana, you have to remember the rule that うしろ works with location and あと works with time. So, うしろをつく means to follow physically, whereas あとをついていく means to follow afterwards (in time). Notice the slightly different verb forms used - つく means 'stick to', so conveys the sense of being physically close, and うしろ tells us where. ついていく adds the いく construction which can be used on its own to mean go towards or with, and あと adds the time element.
This brings us to the final piece of the puzzle: the use of 後 as a suffix to a noun. It means 'after' in time in just the same way as あと and のち, but it is read ご:
さんじゅう
30
ねん

30 years later
In this case, the kanji is almost always used, rather than kana, and there are no okurigana, so it can be hard to tell whether the reading should be あと or ご. In general, the giveaway is the presence or absence of a particle - あと is usually followed by で, and if you see で, the reading is あと not ご. Another clue is that ご is very commonly used with time or date expressions.
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Kanji used in this grammar

ゴ   コウ   のち    あと afterwards   うし behind   おくれる be late   
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テン   あめ    あま- heaven   
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キ   ケ    spirit   
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ヨ    previously, in advance   
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ホウ    report   むくいる to compensate, remunerate   むく reward, recompense   
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セイ   はれる to clear up   はらす to dispel, to clear away   
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ウ   あめ    あま- rain   
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デン    electricity   
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ワ   はな to talk   はなし talking   
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ブ   part
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カ   ゲ   した below, under   しも bottom part   もと under (influence)   さげる to lower, to reduce   さがる to be lowered   くだ to descend   くだ to judge   くださる to give   おろす to drop off (passenger)   おりる to get off (train)   
ヒ   かれ he   
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ゾク   つづ to continue   つづける to carry on with   
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シ   わたくし    わたし I, myself   
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コウ   ギョウ   アン   ゆ    い to go   おこな to take place   
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ニチ   ジツ   sun; day   ひ    -か    
ショク   ジキ    food   たべる to eat   く to eat   
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ブツ   モツ   もの thing   
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ジ   とき time, occasion   
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カン   ケン   あいだ interval, between   ま space, room   
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デン   つたえる to tell, transmit   つたわる to be handed down   つた to go along   
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シ   ス   こ child   
ボ   はは mother   
シン   おや parent   したしい close, intimate   したしむ to befriend, grow close to   
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リツ   リュウ   た to stand   たてる to build   
ネン   とし year   
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