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Grammar detail: いる / います and ある / あります

いる / います and ある / あります - existence; possession
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〜がいます(いる)and 〜があります(ある)can often be defined as 'there is/are'. They are both verbs that are concerned with existence.
います is used to talk about animate (living) things, while あります is used with inanimate (non-living) things.
こんげつ
今月
いっぱいここいます
I will stay here all this month.
いえ
まえ
おんな
たくさんいます
There are many girls in front of our house.
Here います is used, as the sentence is about the existence of a girl.
へや
部屋
ものたくさんあります
There are many things in the room.
Here, あります is used, because the sentence is about the existence of 'things'.
います and あります can also both be used to convey the idea of possession - いる for living things, and ある for non-living:
あに
います
I have an older brother.
かのじょ
彼女
います
I have a girlfriend.
かね
ありません
I don't have any money.
かね
あります
Do you have any money?
Kanji forms for both いる and ある exist, but are less common in modern Japanese. いる is sometimes written as 居る. ある can be written as 有る, 在る and 或る. The 有る form is used when referring to possession or ownership. The 在る form is used when referring to existence of for example stocks or supplies. 或る is used when ある is used to mean 'a certain ~' (see ある〜 - a certain).
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Kanji used in this grammar

キョ   い to exist, to be present   
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ユウ   ウ   あ to possess; to exist   
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ザイ   あ to exist   
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a certain   
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コン   キン   いま now   
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ガツ   ゲツ   つき month; moon   
カ   ケ   house   いえ    や    
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ゼン   まえ before   
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ジョ   ニョ   ニョウ   woman; female   おんな woman   め woman   
シ   ス   こ child   
ブ   part
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オク   や roof   
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ケイ   キョウ   elder brother; brother   あに elder brother   
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ヒ   かれ he   
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キン   コン   かね gold; money   
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