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Grammar detail: 中(ちゅう, じゅう)

中(ちゅう, じゅう) - throughout; while; out of; during etc.
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中 is a versatile character that can be used in several ways.
On its own, it is typically read なか, and means 'inside'. For example:
へや
部屋
なか
inside the room
However, it is commonly appended to other nouns, and used to convey the idea of 'throughout' or 'all over'. In this form, it is typically read じゅう. For example:
  • いちねんじゅう
    一年中
    throughout the year, all year round
  • いちにちじゅう
    一日中
    all day long, throughout the day
  • へやじゅう
    部屋中
    all over the room, throughout the room
When added to durations, it can also be used to convey the idea of duration, and is typically read as ちゅう, sometimes as じゅう (and in rare cases, either, with slightly different meanings). For example:
  • いちじかんちゅう
    一時間中
    for one hour
  • いちにちちゅう
    1日中
    for one day
中 can also be used to indicate that something is in progress. In this situation, it is usually read as ちゅう.
  • りょこうちゅう
    旅行中
    on a trip
  • じゅんびちゅう
    準備中
    preparations underway
中 can be used to illustrate a part of a whole. For example:
  • ろくにん
    6人
    ちゅう
    ごにん
    5人
    いしゃ
    医者
    five out of six doctors
Some examples:
やす
ちゅう
うみ
ったり
ワイン
んだり
ほん
んだり
したいです
During the break I want to go to the beach, drink wine and read books.
いちにちじゅう
一日中
あめ
ふったりやんだりしていた
It rained on and off all day long.
ごぜんちゅう
午前中
んではいけません

You're not allowed to drink during the morning.
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Kanji used in this grammar

チュウ   ジュウ   なか middle   
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ブ   part
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オク   や roof   
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イチ   イツ   ひと    ひと- one   
ネン   とし year   
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ニチ   ジツ   sun; day   ひ    -か    
ジ   とき time, occasion   
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カン   ケン   あいだ interval, between   ま space, room   
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リョ   たび trip   
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コウ   ギョウ   アン   ゆ    い to go   おこな to take place   
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ジュン    semi-, quasi-   
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ビ   そなえる to prepare, to provide for   そなわる to be furnished with   
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ジン   ニン   ひと person   
イ    doctor   
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シャ   もの person, someone   
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キュウ   やす to rest   やすまる to be rested   やすめる to suspend (use etc.)   
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カイ   うみ ocean   
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イン   の to drink   
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ホン   book   もと origin   
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ドク   トク   トウ   よ to read   
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ウ   あめ    あま- rain   
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ゴ    noon   
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ゼン   まえ before   
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