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Grammar detail: 例えば(たとえば)

例えば(たとえば) - for example
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たと
えば is a very commonly-used word meaning 'for example'.
It can be used to begin a sentence or phrase, in which case it indicates that the whole sentence or phrase that follows illustrates a point:
たと
えば
これ
いっぽん
一本
ペンです
For example, this is a pen.
たと
えば
ロンドン
いま
あさ
です
For example, it is 7:00 a.m. in London now.
イタリア
おお
ふる
とし
都市
ある
たと
えば
ローマとかベネチア
There are a lot of old cities in Italy. Rome and Venice, for example.
Or, it can precede one or more items, in which case it indicates that those items are examples of something:
がいこく
外国
たとえばアメリカ
った
ことあります
Have you visited foreign countries, say America?
たと
えば is actually just the conditional form of the verb
たと
える, to illustrate, so it literally means 'if I were to illustrate ...'. Historically it was almost exclusively written with kanji, but in contemporary Japanese the kana form is almost as common.
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Kanji used in this grammar

レイ   example   たとえる to illustrate, to compare   たとえば for example   
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イチ   イツ   ひと    ひと- one   
ホン   book   もと origin   
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コン   キン   いま now   
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チョウ   あさ morning   
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ジ   とき time, occasion   
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タ   おお many   
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コ   ふる old   -ふる to grow old   
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ト   ツ   みやこ capital city, metropolis   
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シ   いち market   
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ガイ   ゲ   そと outside   ほか other   はず to remove, mislead   はずれる to come off, to miss   
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コク   くに country   
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コウ   ギョウ   アン   ゆ    い to go   おこな to take place   
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