Components

Grammar detail: 損ねる(そこねる)

損ねる(そこねる) - miss (something); fail (to do something)
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verb stem
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そこ
ねる
means
miss the chance to do ~; fail to do ~
 
かれ
その
れっしゃ
列車
りそこねた

They missed the train.
そこ
ねる (also commonly written with kana only as そこねる) is a transitive verb meaning 'to harm' or 'to injure'. The implication here is that some action has been 'injured' or has otherwise failed.
This form is commonly used with several verbs, for example:
書く書き損ねるwrite incorrectly
言う言い損ねるfail to say; be unable to say
聞く聞き損ねるfail to hear (not mishear)
見る見損ねるoverlook (something); miss something (eg a game); misjudge (someone)
そこ
なう, the intransitive form, can also be used in this construction. The change in meaning is subtle: the transitive form implies a more literal physical failure to do something, whereas the intransitive is both figurative and literal.
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Words used in this grammar

3
1. to harm; to hurt; to injure; to damage
auxiliary verb
2. to fail in doing
(click the word to view an additional 2 forms, examples and links)
3
ichidan verb, transitive verb
1. to harm; to hurt; to injure; to wreck
auxiliary verb
2. to miss one's chance to (do something); to fail to (do what one ought to have done)
(click the word for examples and links)

Kanji used in this grammar

ソン   そこなう    そこねる to injure, to harm   
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ショ   か to write   
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ゲン   ゴン   say; word   こと word, saying   い to say   
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ブン   モン   き to listen, to hear   きこえる to be heard   
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ケン   み to see   みえる to be seen; to appear   みせる to show   
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ヒ   かれ he   
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レツ    row   
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シャ   くるま car   
ジョウ   load; power   の to board   のせる to load on   
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