Components

Grammar detail: Japanese terms for parts of speech

Japanese terms for parts of speech
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The following is a list of Japanese terms for key parts of speech, as well as standard terms for the intent / purpose of a term or grammatical form.
めいし
noun
こゆうめし
proper noun
どうし
verb
じょどうし
auxiliary verb
ふくごうどうし
compound verb
けいようし
adjective; い adjective
けいようどうし
な adjective
The origin of the term , which literally means 'verb adjective', is interesting. Originally, な adjectives emerged through the use of なる (become) to a noun (1) - for example
いだい
なる
かわ
. So they were literally 'adjectives formed through addition of a verb'. Over time, 'なる' became just 'な’.
れんたいし
other (not い or な) adjective
ぜんちし
preposition
じしょけい
dictionary form
The form that appears in a dictionary. For a verb, this is the plain form of the present tense. For a noun or adjective, it is the uninflected form.
ふつうけい
plain form(s) of a word
The plain forms are the 'casual' or 'short' forms. For example, for the verb
べる (eat), べる, べた, べている etc. are all plain forms.
ていねいけい
polite form(s) of a word
かつようけい
conjugated form of a word
しゅうしけい
predicative form
めいれいけい
imperative form
しえきけい
causative form
よだんかつよう
classical Japanese verb form
じょうけんけい
conditional form
じょすうし
counter
たいひ
comparison
ひてい
negative
きょうちょう
emphasis
かんりゃくか
simplification (of a kanji etc.)
ひっしゃ
cursive (form of a kanji)
かくにん
confirmation
せつめい
explanation
でんぶん
hearsay
もくてき
purpose
ふかひ
inevitability
けいご
respectful (polite) speech
ふくじょし
adverbial particle
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See also:
  • Japanese verbs and verb conjugation

Kanji used in this grammar

メイ   ミョウ   な name   
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1
シ    part of speech, words, poetry   
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4
コ   かた hard   かたまる to harden   かためる to make hard   
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4
ユウ   ウ   あ to possess; to exist   
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2
ドウ   うご to move, to stir   うごかす to shift, to move   
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2
ジョ   すけ help   たすける to help, save   たすかる to be helped   
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3
フク    double, multiple   
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4
ゴウ   ガッ   カッ   あ to fit, come together   あわす to match   あわせる to unite, join   
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3
ケイ   ギョウ   shape   かたち    かた    
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3
ヨウ    contents   
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3
イ   えら illustrious, famous   
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3
ダイ   タイ   おおきい big   おおいに very much   おお-    
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1
セン   かわ river   
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1
レン   つれる to take, to lead   つらねる to line up   つらなる to extend   
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3
タイ   テイ   からだ body   
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2
ゼン   まえ before   
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1
チ   お to put   
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3
ジ   やめる quit   
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3
ショ   か to write   
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1
フ    universal, generally   
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4
ツ   ツウ   とお to pass through   とお to let pass   かよ to commute   
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2
ショク   ジキ    food   たべる to eat   く to eat   
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1
チョウ   テイ    a (city) block; counter for long/narrow things, blocks of tofu   
5
ネイ    preferable, rather; peaceful, quiet   
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5
カツ    activity, resuscitation   
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3
ヨウ   もちいる to use   
2
シュウ   end   おわる to come to an end   おえる to bring to an end   
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2
シ   とめる to stop   とまる to stop   
2
メイ   ミョウ    fate, life   いのち life   
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3
レイ    order   
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4
使
シ   つか to use   
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2
ヤク   エキ    office, role; service   
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3
シ   four   よ    よ    よっ    よん    
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1
ダン    grade, step, stairs   
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3
ジョウ    twig   
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5
ケン    affair, matter   
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3
スウ   ス   かず number   かぞえる to count   
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3
タイ   ツイ    vis-a-vis   
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3
ヒ   くらべる to compare   
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4
ヒ   いな no   
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3
テイ   ジョウ   determined   さだ decidedly, truly   さだめる to decide, determine   さだまる to be determined   
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3
キョウ   ゴウ   つよ strong   つよまる to get stronger   つよめる to strengthen   しいる to compel, to force   
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2
調
チョウ   しらべる to investigate   ととの to be arranged, to be in order   ととのえる to adjust, tune   
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3
カン    simplicity   
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4
リャク    abbreviation   
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4
カ   ケ   ばける to change   
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3
ヒツ   ふで writing brush   
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4
シャ   もの person, someone   
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2
カク   たし certain   たしかめる to make certain   
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3
ニン   みとめる to recognize, to perceive, to approve of   
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3
セツ   ゼイ   と to explain, persuade   
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3
メイ   ミョウ   あかり light   あかるい bright   あかるむ to brighten   あからむ to become luminous (at dawn)   あきらか obvious   あかす to lay bare   あ to open   あける to empty   
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2
デン   つたえる to tell, transmit   つたわる to be handed down   つた to go along   
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3
ブン   モン   き to listen, to hear   きこえる to be heard   
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1
ボク   モク   eye   ま-    め    
2
テキ   まと target   
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2
フ   ブ    not   
2
カ    good, possible, approval   
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2
ヒ   さける to avoid   
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5
ケイ   うやま to respect, revere   
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4
ゴ   かた to talk, relate   かたらう to talk together, chat   
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1
フク    assistant   
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4
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