Grammar detail: prepositions in Japanese

prepositions in Japanese
My current mastery of this grammar:
LOG IN to view grammar mastery data
In English, prepositions are words that are used before a noun phrase and serve to give the noun phrase a relationship with the remainder of the containing clause. For example, in the sentence "I went into the house", into is a preposition.
Japanese functions somewhat differently. The most important difference is that Japanese words which serve the same function as the English preposition often *follow* the noun phrase they modify. (In English, this is called a postposition; the term for both prepositions and postpositions is adposition.)
The second most important difference is that the role of the preposition is often split between multiple words, one or more of which is a standard Japanese particle.
The most common prepositions in English are above, across, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, by, down, from, in, into, near, of, off, on, to, toward, under, upon, with and within. Here are a few examples of their Japanese equivalents.
When describing something that is physically above something else, the noun
is used. Since it is a noun, it is linked to other nouns using the particle の. Since the resulting item describes a location, the particle に as a location marker may be required.

We saw clouds above the mountain.
When describing something that is figuratively above something else, the noun
is used. does not customarily require の to link it to other nouns (although it can be used), and since the result is not a physical location, に is not required. Essentially functions as a suffix.
Do not live above your income.
LOG IN to view flashcard data

Kanji used in this grammar

ジョウ   ショウ   うえ above   うわ- above   あげる to raise   あがる to rise   かみ first half, upper part   のぼ to climb   のぼせる to bring up, to raise   のぼ to bring up   
イ    (prefix) or   
Problem with this grammar? Question or comment? Please CONTACT US.
Change component list
By default the component builder shows the most common components (themselves joyo kanji, or used in at least 3 other joyo kanji). Select an alternative set of components below.

Full details of all components and their English names can be found here.
Help with the component builder
For detailed instructions, see the Component builder how to guide.
To find any kanji, first try to identify the components it is made up of.
For any components you recognize, if you know the English meaning or name, start typing it in the text area. Full details of all components and their English names can be found here.
Alternatively, count the strokes of the component, and scan the list to find it visually.
To find the kanji :
  • Notice that it is made of several components: 氵 艹 口 夫.
  • 氵 艹 口 all have three strokes, so you could look in the list in the 3 stroke section. 夫 has four strokes.
  • Alternatively, you could start typing 'water' (氵), 'grass' (艹), 'mouth' (口) or 'husband' (夫) in the search area, and the components will be highlighted in yellow.
  • Keep adding components until you can see your kanji in the list of matches that appears near the top.