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Grammar detail: これ & この, それ & その, あれ & あの

これ & この, それ & その, あれ & あの - this and that
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これ means
this
when the target of the expression is not expressly stated.
これはしいですね。This is difficult.
When the target is included, この is used:
このしいです。This book is difficult.
それ and その are the equivalents for 'that'. あれ and あの also mean 'that', and are used when the target of the expression is not near either the speaker or the listener.
Originally, each of these words was written with kanji - for example, それ was written れ, これ was written れ. However, those forms, along with use of kanji for grammatical constructions generally, have fallen out of use.
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Kanji used in this grammar

ナン   むずかしい difficult   かた hard   
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3
ホン   book   もと origin   
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1
キ   それ    その that   
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シ   これ    この this   ここ here   
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