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Grammar detail: Godan 五段(ごだん)'う' form verbs

Godan 五段(ごだん)'う' form verbs
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The most common five forms of godan verbs use each of the five Japanese vowel sounds (あ, い, う, え, お) - hence 'five' level - combined with whatever consonant begins the final sound of the plain form. Using
く (to write) as an example, the consonant is 'k' (from く):
Vowel soundFormExample
negativeない
masuます
plain
conditional
volitional
Examples
The following words are all examples of godan words. In each case, the dictionary form ends with the 'u' sound, but the kana used to form it varies based on the sound it is part of - う, く, ぐ etc.
言ういうto say言う inflections
書くかくto write書く inflections
泳ぐおよぐto swim泳ぐ inflections
出すだすto take out出す inflections
持つもつto hold持つ inflections
死ぬしぬto die死ぬ inflections
読むよむto read読む inflections
Godan exceptions
A small number of verbs ending in る are godan verbs even though their plain form appears to classify them as ichidan. (In other words,
はい
る becomes
はい
ります.)
There is no rule which determines whether verbs ending in る are ichidan or godan, so it is best to memorize the exceptions below.
はい
to enter
はし
to run
to need
かえ
to return
かぎ
to limit
to cut
しゃべ
to chatter
to know
つく
to make
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Kanji used in this grammar

ショ   か to write   
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ゲン   ゴン   say; word   こと word, saying   い to say   
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エイ   およ swim   
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シュツ   スイ   だ to take out, to put out   で to go out, to exit   
ジ   も to hold, to have   
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シ   death   し die   
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ドク   トク   トウ   よ to read   
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ニュウ   い to enter   はい to enter   いれる to put in   
ソウ   はし run   
ヨウ   い to need   かなめ pivotal point   
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キ   かえ to return   かえ to send back, give back   
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ゲン   かぎ to limit, restrict   
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セツ   サイ   き to cut   きれる to break, to snap   
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しゃべ to chat   
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チ   し to know   
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サク   サ   つく to make   
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