Components

Grammar detail: しか + verb negative form

しか + verb negative form  nothing but
78 words
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noun phrase
+
しか
+
verb negative form
means
'nothing but', 'only' or 'as few as'
This form can be confusing, because the negative verb required by しか becomes positive in English.
Verb いる:
わたし
しかいない
There's only me here.
Verb ある:
おまえ
かね
しかない
You've got nothing but money.
わたし
たち
には
ちい
さな
くるま
しかない
We only have a small car.
Verb する:
わたし
たまにしか
べんきょう
勉強
しない

I study very little.
さん
ねん
しか
べんきょう
勉強
してない
のに
にほんご
日本語
じょうず
上手
です
For only three years of studying, your Japanese is great!
In this sentence, the standard negative progressive form of する (していない, 'is not doing') has been contracted to してない. This is common in casual / colloquial speech.
Other verbs:
たいてい
とり
ひるま
昼間
しか
えない

Most birds can see only by day.
あに
じぶん
自分
こと
しか
かんが
えていません

My brother only thinks about himself.
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Kanji used in this grammar

シ   わたくし    わたし I, myself   
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キン   コン   かね gold; money   
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ショウ   こ-    お-    ちいさい small   
シャ   くるま car   
ベン    exertion   
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キョウ   ゴウ   つよ strong   つよまる to get stronger   つよめる to strengthen   しいる to compel, to force   
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ネン   とし year   
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ニチ   ジツ   sun; day   ひ    -か    
ホン   book   もと origin   
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ゴ   かた to talk, relate   かたらう to talk together, chat   
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ジョウ   ショウ   うえ above   うわ- above   あげる to raise   あがる to rise   かみ first half, upper part   のぼ to climb   のぼせる to bring up, to raise   のぼ to bring up   
シュ   hand   て    た-    
チョウ   とり bird   
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チュウ   ひる noon, daytime   
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カン   ケン   あいだ interval, between   ま space, room   
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ボク   モク   eye   ま-    め    
ケン   み to see   みえる to be seen; to appear   みせる to show   
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ケイ   キョウ   elder brother; brother   あに elder brother   
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ジ   シ   みずか self   
ブン   ブ   フン   わける to divide, to distinguish   わかる to understand   わかれる to be divided   わかつ to share, distribute   
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ジ   ズ   こと thing; matter   
コウ   かんがえる to think about, consider   
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