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Grammar detail: 貸す(かす) and 借りる(かりる)

貸す(かす) and 借りる(かりる) - lend and borrow
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す means 'lend'. The simplest structure is:
(lender) + が (or は) + (borrower) + に + 貸す
For example:
わたし
ともだち
友達
ほん
しました

I lent my friend a book.
りる means 'borrow'. The simplest structure is:
(borrower) + が (or は) + (lender) + に (or から) + 借りる
For example:
わたし
あなた
しゴム
りてもいい
です
May I borrow your eraser?
す is commonly combined with もらう, あげる, くれる to express the idea of who is doing something on behalf of someone else:
  • もらる is used when the speaker is the subject, and indicates that the speaker is receiving a benefit
  • あげる is used when the speaker is the subject, and indicates that the speaker is providing a benefit
  • くれる indicates that the subject is providing a benefit to the other party
For example:
MeTanaka-san
(私は)田中さんに本を貸してもらう。
I had Tanaka-san lend me a book.
borrowerlender私 is the subject of もらう: I received a favor from Tanaka-san. (Note: as is typical in Japanese, 私 would not be specified as it is the implied subject)
田中さんが私に本を貸してくれた。
Tanaka-san lent me a book.
borrowerlender田中さん is the subject of くれる: Tanaka-san did a favor for me.
田中さん、お金を貸してもらえる?
Tanaka-san, will you lend me (the) book?
borrowerlenderIn this example, the Japanese literally means 'Tanaka-san, can I get you to lend me a book?'. In Japanese it is common to use かす where in English we would typically use かりる: 'Tanaka-san, may I borrow your book?'
田中さん、お手洗いを借りていいですか。
Tanaka-san, may I use the bathroom?
borrowerlender / userIn Japanese, when asking politely for permission to use the bathroom, it is common to use this form, which literally means 'may I borrow the bathroom?'
田中さん、トイレを貸してください。borrowerlender / userIn the same way, it is common to ask for something using 貸してください - please lend me. This usage implies a more informal relationship than 借りてもいいですか.
(私は)田中さんに本をあげる。
I gave Tanaka-san a book.
providerrecipient私 is the subject of あげる
(私は)田中さんに本をもらう。
I received a book from Tanaka-san.
recipientprovider私 is the subject of もらう
Technically it is possible to combine 借りる with もらう, あげる, くれる etc in the same way, but these usages can imply somewhat convoluted meanings, so are not commonly encountered. For example, 借りてもらう literally means 'have someone borrow something (on your behalf)'.
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Kanji used in this grammar

タイ   か to lend   
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シャク   かりる to borrow   
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シ   わたくし    わたし I, myself   
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デン   た rice field   
チュウ   ジュウ   なか middle   
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ホン   book   もと origin   
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キン   コン   かね gold; money   
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シュ   hand   て    た-    
セン   あら to wash   
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ユウ   とも friend   
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タツ    arrive   
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ショウ   け to extinguish   きえる to go out   
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