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Grammar detail: 貸す(かす) and 借りる(かりる)

貸す(かす) and 借りる(かりる) - lend and borrow
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す means 'lend'. The simplest structure is:
(lender) + が (or は) + (borrower) + に +
For example:
わたし
ともだち
友達
ほん
しました

I lent my friend a book.
りる means 'borrow'. The simplest structure is:
(borrower) + が (or は) + (lender) + に (or から) + りる
For example:
わたし
あなた
しゴム
りてもいい
です
May I borrow your eraser?
す is commonly combined with もらう, あげる, くれる to express the idea of who is doing something on behalf of someone else:
  • もらる is used when the speaker is the subject, and indicates that the speaker is receiving a benefit
  • あげる is used when the speaker is the subject, and indicates that the speaker is providing a benefit
  • くれる indicates that the subject is providing a benefit to the other party
For example:
Me Tanaka-san
(は)さんにしてもらう。
I had Tanaka-san lend me a book.
borrower lender is the subject of もらう: I received a favor from Tanaka-san. (Note: as is typical in Japanese, would not be specified as it is the implied subject)
さんがしてくれた。
Tanaka-san lent me a book.
borrower lender さん is the subject of くれる: Tanaka-san did a favor for me.
さん、おしてもらえる?
Tanaka-san, will you lend me (the) book?
borrower lender In this example, the Japanese literally means 'Tanaka-san, can I get you to lend me a book?'. In Japanese it is common to use かす where in English we would typically use かりる: 'Tanaka-san, may I borrow your book?'
さん、おいをりていいですか。
Tanaka-san, may I use the bathroom?
borrower lender / user In Japanese, when asking politely for permission to use the bathroom, it is common to use this form, which literally means 'may I borrow the bathroom?'
さん、トイレをしてください。 borrower lender / user In the same way, it is common to ask for something using してください - please lend me. This usage implies a more informal relationship than りてもいいですか.
(は)さんにをあげる。
I gave Tanaka-san a book.
provider recipient is the subject of あげる
(は)さんにをもらう。
I received a book from Tanaka-san.
recipient provider is the subject of もらう
Technically it is possible to combine りる with もらう, あげる, くれる etc in the same way, but these usages can imply somewhat convoluted meanings, so are not commonly encountered. For example, りてもらう literally means 'have someone borrow something (on your behalf)'.
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See also:
  • verb て form + もらう - to have someone do something
  • verb て form + くれる - receive
  • verb て form + あげる - do for somebody, give

Kanji used in this grammar

タイ   か to lend   
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2
シャク   かりる to borrow   
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2
シ   わたくし    わたし I, myself   
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2
デン   た rice field   
2
チュウ   ジュウ   なか middle   
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1
ホン   book   もと origin   
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1
キン   コン   かね gold; money   
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1
シュ   hand   て    た-    
2
セン   あら to wash   
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3
ユウ   とも friend   
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1
タツ    arrive   
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3
ショウ   け to extinguish   きえる to go out   
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3
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