Components

Grammar detail: colloquial variations of Japanese

colloquial variations of Japanese
Tweet
My current mastery of this grammar:
LOG IN to view grammar mastery data
In daily use, many Japanese constructions are contracted or simplified, especially in the spoken language. For example:
てしまう ➜ ちゃう
さいこう
最高
わら
っちゃう

That's great! That makes me laugh.
〜ている ➜ 〜てる (colloquial progressive)
かのじょ
彼女
たいへん
大変
よく
ははおや
母親
てます

She reminds me very much of her mother.
ている・ておる ➜ 〜ちょる (regional colloquial progressive)
The form ちょる is used instead of ている. Usually it is added to the stem (つけちょる), but in historical dialect it was sometimes added to the plain form (いうちょる). This form is actually a contraction of ておる.
〜ていない ➜ 〜てない (negative colloquial progressive)
ひょうじょう
表情
ということまるでできてない
It’s as though you’re unable to show any expression.
〜られる ➜ 〜れる (used in passive and potential forms)
This colloquialism is known as 'ranuki kotoba', ie 'word missing ra' (from ら
ことば
). Historically this form was considered incorrect, although it is becoming increasingly common.
れば
わかる
I know him by sight.
なくてはいけない ➜ なくちゃ
なければ ➜ なきゃ
かもしれない ➜ かも
The common word かもしれない (meaning 'probably is', or 'is probably the case') is often shortened to just かも colloquially.
という ➜ って
は ➜ って
って can also be used as a substitute for は (or というのは) at the end of a sentence. For example:
みき
美希
ちゃんって
Who's Miki?
よろい
って
What is 'armor'?
の to indicate a question
れは, れば, りは, りや ➜ りゃ
な as shortened imperative
Sometimes なさい is shortened to simply な as a rough (but not rude) imperative.
よく
おぼ
えておき

Remember it well!
Particle omission
In colloquial Japanese, particles such as は and が are often left out. For example:
そんなことない
わたし
こういう
だいす
大好

That's not true at all. I love things like this.
Source: りとハードボイルド・ワンダーランド(
In standard Japanese, the second sentence would be
わたし
はこういうのが
だいす
き。
うち
➜ んち
まえ
んち
きたい
なぁ
I wanna go to your place ...
Sometimes the ん will also be omitted:
かれ
その
よる
かとう
加藤
さんとまった
He lodged at Mr Kato's for the night.
LOG IN to view flashcard data
See also:
  • 関西弁(かんさいべん) - the Kansai dialect of Japanese

Kanji used in this grammar

バツ   ぬ to extract, pull out   ぬける to come / fall out; be omitted   ぬかす to omit   ぬかる to make a blunder   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
ゲン   ゴン   say; word   こと word, saying   い to say   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
2
ヨウ   leaf   は leaves   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
シ   わたくし    わたし I, myself   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
2
ダイ   タイ   おおきい big   おおいに very much   おお-    
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
1
コウ   この    す to like   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
カ   ケ   house   いえ    や    
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
2
サイ   もっと most   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
コウ   expensive; high   たか    たか expensive, tall, high   たかまる to be elevated   たかめる to promote, heighten   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
1
ショウ   わら to laugh   え to smile   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
ヒ   かれ he   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
ジョ   ニョ   ニョウ   woman; female   おんな woman   め woman   
1
ヘン   unusual   かえる to alter, change   かわる to change   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
ボ   はは mother   
1
シン   おや parent   したしい close, intimate   したしむ to befriend, grow close to   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
2
ジ   similar   に to be similar to   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
ヒョウ   おもて surface, front   あらわ to show, to present   あらわれる to be present, to appear   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
ジョウ   セイ   なさ emotion; circumstances   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
ケン   み to see   みえる to be seen; to appear   みせる to show   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
1
ビ   うつくしい beautiful   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
キ   rare
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
4
ガイ   よろい armor   よろ to put on armor   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
カク   おぼえる to remember   さめる to awake   さます to rouse, awaken   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
ゼン   まえ before   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
1
コウ   ギョウ   アン   ゆ    い to go   おこな to take place   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
1
ヤ   よる    よ night   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
2
カ   くわえる to add to   くわわる to join, to be added to   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
3
トウ   ふじ wisteria   
Please LOG IN to view this kanji's mnemonic
5
Problem with this grammar? Question or comment? Please CONTACT US.
×
Change component list
By default the component builder shows the most common components (themselves joyo kanji, or used in at least 3 other joyo kanji). Select an alternative set of components below.



Full details of all components and their English names can be found here.
Help with the component builder
For detailed instructions, see the Component builder how to guide.
To find any kanji, first try to identify the components it is made up of.
For any components you recognize, if you know the English meaning or name, start typing it in the text area. Full details of all components and their English names can be found here.
Alternatively, count the strokes of the component, and scan the list to find it visually.
Example
To find the kanji :
  • Notice that it is made of several components: 氵 艹 口 夫.
  • 氵 艹 口 all have three strokes, so you could look in the list in the 3 stroke section. 夫 has four strokes.
  • Alternatively, you could start typing 'water' (氵), 'grass' (艹), 'mouth' (口) or 'husband' (夫) in the search area, and the components will be highlighted in yellow.
  • Keep adding components until you can see your kanji in the list of matches that appears near the top.