Grammar detail: irregular verbs

irregular verbs
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There are only two key irregular verbs in Japanese: する (to do), and くる (to come). Both are very common - especially する, which can be used to turn any noun into a verb.

する to do

plain formするしない
masu formしますしません
past formしたしなかった
polite past formしましたしませんでした
te formしてしなくて
te stem form
potential formできるできない
passive formされるされない
causative formさせるさせない
causative passive formさせられるさせられない
conditional formすればしなければ
imperative formしろするな
volitional formしよう
The potential form of する is actually an entirely different verb, できる, which is used in its own right to mean 'to be able to'.

くる to come

plain formくるこない
masu formきますきません
past formきたこなかった
polite past formきましたきませんでした
te formきてこなくて
potential formこられるこられない
passive formこられるこられない
causative formこさせるこさせない
causative passive formこさせられるこさせられない
conditional formくればこなければ
imperative formこいくるな
volitional formこよう

Other exceptions

In addition to くる and する, one other verb, ある (meaning to be or to have) has two irregular forms - the plain negative (ない) and the plain past negative (なかった). All other forms of ある are regular, and ある is not considered an irregular verb.
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See also:
  • Japanese verbs and verb conjugation
  • する - to do
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